Packs More Power, Sophistication for 2005
An engine is the heart of
any muscle car, and with the new 2005 Mustang, the beat
goes on stronger than ever.
A new V-8 engine
pumps the Mustang GT up to an impressive 300 horsepower
and 315 foot-pounds of torque – enough to get any
muscle-car enthusiast’s heart racing. It marks the
first time the mainstream Mustang GT offers 300 horsepower
– formerly exclusive Mach 1, Cobra and Boss territory.
4.6-liter, three-valve MOD V-8 packs 40 more horsepower
than the current V-8 and more than 50 percent more power
than the fiery small-block 289-cubic-inch V-8 that propelled
the 1964 model to stardom.
This new level
of performance – on regular gas – is made
possible by intelligent application of modern technology,
including all-aluminum construction and a new head design
that incorporates three valves per cylinder and variable
|The V-6 Mustang customer
hasn’t been forgotten either. The new 90-degree, single-overhead-cam
4.0-liter engine produces 202 horsepower standard – up from
the prior pushrod engine’s 193 hp – for a new level of
performance. Peak torque is 235 foot-pounds, 10 more than the prior
|"Part of our promise
of building better cars cleaner, safer and sooner is not only delivering
these cars to customers sooner, but reaching the end of the quarter
mile sooner, too," said Hau Thai-Tang, Mustang chief engineer.
|Electronic throttle control
is new to Mustang for 2005. Each engine has been tuned to provide
heart-warming performance sound and feel, without unwanted noise,
vibration and harshness. New, faster electronic processors with more
computing muscle and memory enable Mustang’s more powerful engines
to deliver even better fuel economy with lower emissions.
High-Tech Road to 300 Horsepower
|Mustang’s new 4.6-liter,
three-valve MOD V-8 has its roots in Ford’s modular
engine family that spawned stalwarts like the F-150’s
workhorse 5.4-liter Triton™ V-8s and the 6.8-liter
V-10 found in Super Duty F-Series pickups.
|The V-8’s deep-skirt,
lightweight aluminum engine block provides optimum stiffness
and strength, saving 75 pounds compared with a cast-iron
design. Computer-aided engineering was used to reinforce
key areas of the block, adding rigidity without weight.
hypereutectic aluminum pistons have short skirts, with
an anti-friction coating that assures more of the power
is delivered to Mustang’s rear wheels and less is
lost to friction.
High-tension piston rings
provide better cylinder sealing for long-term durability and low oil
consumption. The connecting rods use Ford’s cracked powdered
metal manufacturing technique for precise fit. Five main bearings
with cross-bolted main bearing caps further ensure durability and
reduce flex. A tray attached to the main bearing caps baffles oil
flow in the pan, reducing aeration and assuring proper oil feed to
the crankshaft during the kind of sustained lateral maneuvers encountered
in performance driving.
For refinement, both the
V-8 and V-6 engine are installed using hydromount bushings on either
side of the block. These liquid-filled engine mounts are tuned to
quell specific unwanted vibration. The V-6 engine, with its narrower
60-degree V-angle, also uses a computer-designed, triangular cast-aluminum
engine mount bracket.
|In addition to offering
more power and improved efficiency, Mustang’s engines will meet
Ultra Low-Emission Vehicle II (ULEV II) standards, which govern evaporative
and tailpipe emissions. This makes the new Mustang a big part of Ford’s
growing environmental success story. On average, the 2005 fleet of
Ford Mustangs will emit 57 percent less smog-forming pollution than
the 2004 model year fleet.
|Let It Breathe –
Large-Port Heads Improve Efficiency
With 4.6 liters (281 cubic
inches) of displacement, the Mustang GT engine generates more than
65 hp per liter. This compares with the 42 hp per liter that wowed
enthusiasts when Ford first wedged a fiery, small-block 289-cubic-inch
V-8 and four-barrel carburetor into the Mustang in 1964.
|One of the keys to producing
300 horsepower from this relatively small displacement is Mustang’s
new single-overhead-cam, three-valve cylinder head design with variable
cam timing. The new head gives the engine a higher compression ratio
than previously possible on regular 87 octane gasoline.
|Air equals engine power,
and the V-8’s heads use two intake valves per cylinder to move
more air into the engine. A new, tuned-length exhaust manifold offers
optimized exhaust flow to help scavenge burned gases from the cylinders.
|The center-mounted sparkplug,
for a symmetrical flame, is a Ford innovation. Longer and narrower
than previous designs, it can extend down to the center of the cylinder
head, while leaving as much room as possible for the valves. The compact
coil-on-plug ignition system frees space under the hood and allows
more precise spark control.
|The three-valve heads are
smaller than the previous two-valve heads, reducing weight. They also
offer a more direct, "ported" style path to the valves for
better air flow at peak engine speeds. Magnesium cam covers suppress
valve train noise and reduce weight. Taking weight out at the top
of the engine helps lower the car’s center of gravity and its
roll-center axis, improving handling.
|Ford’s modular engine
architecture lets Mustang share its aluminum heads with the new, 5.4-liter,
three-valve Triton V-8 of the F-150, benefiting manufacturing efficiency.
The heads in the F-150 and Mustang GT engines even share the same
part number, including camshaft. However, sophisticated electronic
controls, including the ability to regulate camshaft timing, allowed
Ford powertrain engineers to tune both engines quite differently to
achieve their individual missions.
|The Mustang’s torque
curve is steeper and peaks at 315 foot-pounds at 4,250 rpm. The Triton
delivers more total torque, at 365 foot-pounds, with peak torque coming
in more quickly at 3,750 rpm.
|The 4.6-liter, three-valve
MOD V-8 engine has the same cylinder bore diameter as the 5.4-liter,
three-valve Triton, but a much shorter stroke – 3.54 inches
vs. 4.17 inches. This gives it free-revving performance characteristics
well-matched to a performance car.
Timing – Power Without Penalty
|Variable camshaft timing
was a key in the quest to wring more power from the Mustang’s
4.6-liter, three-valve MOD V-8 engine, while simultaneously improving
efficiency and reducing emissions. VCT lets allows the valves operate
at optimum points in the combustion cycle, tailored to the engine’s
speed and load at that instant.
|The Mustang VCT system allows
up to 50 degrees of cam variation in relation
to the crankshaft angle. Ford’s "dual-equal" variable
cam timing design shifts timing of both the intake and exhaust valves
together, with one camshaft per cylinder head. This provides all the
benefits of, but creates far less complexity and adds less weight
than, VCT systems that actuate the intake and exhaust valves separately.
|The cams operate both sets
of valves using low-profile roller-finger followers, helping reduce
friction and keep the overall engine height – and thus, hood
line – low. Cam position is controlled by an electronic solenoid
that modulates oil pressure to advance or retard the cam timing based
on input from the engine’s electronic control computer.
|Tuning the Mustang
|Topping off each engine
is an all-new intake manifold, specifically tuned for the Mustang.
Powertrain and NVH engineers worked together using computer-aided
design and engineering, along with sound-quality studies, to achieve
the right balance of sound characteristics and maximum airflow, assuring
the Mustang engines sound as good as they perform.
|Just as an opera singer’s
vocal cords vibrate to make a pitch, Mustang’s tuned intakes
create a distinctive, powerful, soul-stirring sound.
|For the 4.6-liter, three-valve
MOD V-8 engine, the new manifold incorporates a low-profile, dual-bore
throttle body that draws cold air from outside the engine compartment
and uses tuned intake runners for maximum power and efficiency.
|The composite integrated
air-fuel module incorporates a flat, stainless steel fuel rail with
charge motion control valves at the end of each intake runner. The
air-fuel mixture entering an engine behaves differently at different
engine speeds and loads. At low engine speeds and light loads, these
specially shaped CMCV flaps are closed to speed up the intake charge
and induce a tumble effect in the combustion chamber. This causes
the fuel to mix more thoroughly, and burn more quickly and efficiently.
At higher engine speeds, they open fully for maximum flow into the
combustion chambers at wide-open throttle.
Control – Steady Hand on the Power
electronics system – five times faster and boasting up to eight
times more memory than the previous generation EEC-V powertrain control
module – constantly monitors an array of sensors to make thousands
of split-second decisions.
|The most important sensor
for the all-new electronic throttle control system is the one at the
driver’s right foot.
computer infers the driver’s intent from the position of the
accelerator pedal. It continually matches this information against
other data – like engine speed and load – and electrically
operates the throttle-body at the front end of the intake manifold
to achieve results the driver demands.
|Mash the pedal, and the
throttle body will open as fast as the engine can handle the inrushing
air. At the same time, the powertrain computer optimizes the variable
cam timing, fuel flow and transmission shift points to match.
|This system – called
torque-based electronic throttle control – is a direct descendant
of technology first used in fighter aircraft. It delivers improved
efficiency and better acceleration, compared with systems that simply
mimic the action of a mechanical throttle linkage.
|Throttle control is tuned
to deliver consistent response over a wide range of operating conditions,
including temperature and altitude, which influence engine response
and power. Although lower density air still limits peak engine power,
part-throttle response does not degrade with high altitude or high
temperatures. The transmission shift schedule also changes to compensate.
|"The benefit of electronic
throttle control to the driver is an effortless feeling that gives
drivers more of what they want, when they want it," said Eric
Levine, Mustang V-8 Engine supervisor.
|Because the stiff metal
cable between a traditional accelerator pedal and the engine is eliminated,
so is a traditional pathway into the cabin for noise and vibration.
|The ETC system has numerous
safety features, including redundant sensors and double return springs
at the accelerator pedal, dual sensors at the throttle valve, a closed-throttle-default
actuator, backup microprocessors and self-diagnostic software. Multiple
fail-safe mechanisms are provided by the software and hardware, and
the system is fault-tolerant – if a problem is detected, a "limp-home"
mode allows the car to move under its own power.
4.0-liter SOHC V-6 –
Anything but Basic Performance
|With technologies like electronic
throttle control, traction control and an available five-speed automatic
transmission, the base Mustang’s new 4.0-liter SOHC V-6 powertrain
is anything but basic. And with 200 horsepower and 235 foot-pounds
of torque, the V-6 engine offers real Mustang performance at a more
|The 4.0-liter V-6 offers
improved NVH, higher power output and a more compact package than
the previous Mustang’s 3.8-liter pushrod V-6. It features low-profile
heads with single overhead cams driven by a slave shaft mounted in
the "V" of the engine. This results in a lower overall engine
height than a conventional overhead cam setup.
|As in V-8 applications,
a new composite intake manifold was developed specifically for duty
in the Mustang. The 4.0-liter V-6 also gets a unique camshaft grind,
new tuned-length exhaust manifolds, a new flywheel and an oil pan.
In addition, Mustang engineers designed an enhanced fuel injection
system with reduced evaporative leakage, a new EGR system and revised
cooling circuit for the 4.0-liter V-6.
|Key noise-reducing features
of the 4.0-liter SOHC V-6 include a girdled crankcase for increased
strength and rigidity, a dual-mode crankshaft damper, coated skirt
pistons, optimized bearing clearances and isolated composite cam covers.
|Research with current and
potential customers played a role in achieving the sound quality buyers
expect from a Mustang engine. Listening studies were conducted with
current and potential Mustang owners to determine precisely what engine
sounds were "powerful." The resulting sound reinforces the
American muscle-car personality of the 2005 Mustang.
Automatic – One Smooth Operator
|For the first time, Mustang
is available with a five-speed automatic transmission.
The 5R55S automatic, also used in the Lincoln LS and Ford Thunderbird,
has closely spaced ratios that keep the engine in its power band to
produce better acceleration, with a wide ratio that provides remarkably
good highway fuel economy. The new powertrain control computer delivers
benefits in the transmission, as well as the engine, by precisely
controlling shift duration and shift timing. Throttle position, engine
speed, load, environmental factors and other parameters guide the
transmission shift schedule.
|A new electronic interface
lets the powertrain control module communicate with the automatic
transmission 10 times faster than before. For the first time, powertrain
engineers could match transmission controls with other sophisticated
features like variable cam timing and electronic throttle control.
As a result, the entire powertrain works together to deliver smooth
|For those who prefer to
compute their own shift points, five-speed manual transmissions are
standard on both the V-6 and GT versions of the 2005 Mustang.
|The V-8 powered GT is equipped
with a rugged Tremec 3650 gearbox; the V-6 cars get a Tremec T-5 manual.
Both have been improved for shift quality and efficiency. For example,
they now use a flange coupling instead of a splined drive with the
driveshaft that results in better balance and reduced lash. An all-new
shift linkage is designed to provide quick engagement of the gears,
producing a solid feel and none of the "notchiness" apparent
on some previous Mustangs.
|The boosted hydraulic clutch
reduces pedal effort while still offering a performance feel. The
V-6 clutch has new plate materials for durability, and the V-8 clutch
has been enlarged to handle the 300 horsepower of the new 4.6-liter,
three-valve MOD engine.
|In both automatic and manual
transmission cars, Mustang GT models use a two-piece driveshaft that
can withstand higher engine speeds and torque. V-6 models use a slip-in-tube
|The rear axle ratio is 3.55:1
for the Mustang GT when equipped with a manual transmission. All other
Mustangs use a 3.31:1 final drive ratio. The Mustang GT comes standard
with a traction-lock 8.8-inch rear axle for smooth launches and better
grip on loose or slippery surfaces.
|Mustang V-6 models use 7.5-inch
ring and pinion gears. All axles have a robust ring-and-pinion gear
and feature a stiff differential case to reduce flex during cornering.
|Under some conditions, Mustang
drivers may find they need a little help in harnessing all the excitement
the 2005 edition has to offer.
|That’s where the new
all-speed traction control system comes in. Standard on GT and bundled
as an option with the antilock braking system on V-6 models, the traction
control system takes advantage of the new Mustang’s high-speed
communication network by using sensor information from both the engine
controller and the ABS to quickly detect whether the vehicle is on
dry pavement or is negotiating a slippery surface. The new electronic
throttle system and brake system thus work smoothly in concert to
reduce wheel spin.
|But this is a muscle car,
after all, so Mustang’s traction control is tuned a little differently.
On dry pavement, the system allows more rear wheel slip under acceleration,
enhancing the performance feel of rear-wheel drive. This means drivers
still can "hang it out" a bit when the going gets particularly
spirited. If the system detects slippery conditions associated with
snow, ice or wet roads, it acts more aggressively to help the driver
|On those occasions when
traction control isn’t desired – such as a smoky burnout
at the drag strip – drivers can deactivate the system with a
button conveniently located on the instrument panel’s center
stack, just to the right of the gauges. Another push will turn the
system back on; otherwise, it will activate automatically the next
time the vehicle is started.